Fasa Bisnes

Setiap bisnes akan melalui fasa-fasa yang sama seperti manusia iaitu dari bayi, kanak-kanak, remaja dan dewasa. Setiap fasa bisnes memerlukan fokus dan amalan yang berbeza. Begitu juga dengan bisnes anda. Apa yang perlu anda ketahui bahawa ketiga-tiga fasal bisnes ini akan memberi pilihan untuk anda membuat keputusan yang menjamin survival dan perkembangan bisnes anda.
Kebolehan usahawan dalam mengharungi fasa-fasa ini adalah jaminan untuk kelangsungan dan kejayaan bisnes anda.

3 fasa bisnes adalah:
• Fasa Memulakan (Startup)
• Fasa Melicinkan (Systemize)
• Fasa Mengembangkan (Scale)

Jika anda sudah memiliki bisnes, adalah penting untuk anda mengetahu bisnes anda sekarang sedang berada di fasa keberapa supaya anda dapat memberi fokus dan amalan yang betul. Pengunakan ‘tools’ yang betul juga amat penting untuk melicinkan bisnes anda melalui fasa-fasa ini dan sekali gus berkembang seperti apa mana yang anda harapkan.

Berikut adalah penerangan ringkas bagi setiap fasa:

1) Fasa Memulakan (Startup)
Fasa ini adalah fasa yang paling kritikal kerana statistik sendiri menunjukkan 90% bisnes akan gagal pada 3 tahun yang pertama. Oleh kerana itu anda perlu mempersiapkan diri anda dengan daya tahan yang tinggi dan menjadikan bisnes anda sebagai satu sistems yang boleh memudahkan anda menguruskanya. Faktor utama kegagalan sesuatu bisnes kerana kehabisan modal pusingan. Apa yang Paul Graham kata “Out of runaway“. Ada banyak sebab kenapa bisnes kehabisan modal pusingan dan antara sebabnya ialah barangan jualan yangg tidak laku, kos operasi seperti yang melebihi budget seperti sewa kedai dan upah pekerja. Kerana itu, mentor perniagaan mencadangkan agar anda bermula secara ‘lean Startup’.

‘Lean startup’ adalah bermaksud bisnes beroperasi pada kos yang paling minimum dengan menggunakan apa saja yang ada pada anda dan yang paling penting ialah disiplin dalam menggunakan wang bisnes anda.

Contoh ‘Lean Startup’ ialah:
Mengambil gaji yang sangat minima (untuk diri sendiri) atau hanya cukup makan sahaja. Selalunya pada fasa ini, pengusaha akan melakukan semua kerja seorang diri atau pun dalam satu team kecil seperti bersama isteri. Keadaan mungkin mencabar kerana selalunya pada fasa ini menuntut lebih perhatian dan masa dari anda. Kadang-kadang sehingga 24 jam sehari untuk mengendalikan perniagaan!
Pada satu point, anda akan merasakan diri anda terikat dengan bisnes dek kerana terlalu sibuk. Dalam erti lain, Financially Free, tetapi bukan Time Free. Tiada atau kurang masa bebas!

Sebagai contoh:
Seorang usahawan nasi lemak, pada 6 bulan yang pertama akan lebih fokus kepada proses menarik minat pelanggan membeli dan mencuba nasi lemaknya itu. Beliau akan memikirkan cara-cara untuk mempromosi dan meningkatkan ‘visibility’ gerai beliau.

2) Fasa Melicinkan (Systemize)
Setelah mesin buat duit anda mula mencetak duit, dalam erti kata lain anda sudah boleh menjual produk kita dengan konsisten, fasa seterusnya adalah melicinkan operasi bisnes anda.
Di dalam fasa ini anda perlu ‘standardise’kan operasi bisnes anda dengan cara membangunkan Standard Operating Procedure (SOP). SOP ada dalam pelbagai bentuk dan SOP yang paling ringkas adalah berbentuk checklist atau senarai semak yang perlu pekerja anda tandakan mengikut perkembangan tugasan mereka. Proses atau sistem yang memang terbukti boleh menghasilkan jualan anda perlu ditulis menjadi SOP bagi memudahkan anda atau pekerja anda melakukan proses yang sama berulang-ulang kali untuk mendapatkan keputusan yang anda tahu akan menguntungkan anda.

Tujuan fasa ini ada 3 iaitu:
1) Menjadikan hasil kerja konsisten dan kualitinya boleh dipantau dengan mudah.
2) Memudahkan tugas-tugas menggajikan pekerja baru
3) Supaya anda berupaya mengawal cetakan duit oleh mesin bisnes anda

SOP perlu dibangunkan sehingga ke tahap anda mampu tahu jumlah keuntungan dari sumber modal yang telah anda gunakan. SOP juga akan membantu anda mengenal pasti lubang-lubang kebocoran pada sistem dan sekali gus anda mampu bertindak menutup kebocoran itu atau menghalang kesilapan yang merugikan anda sebelum ini dari berlaku lagi.
Itulah kerja-kerja utama pada fasa ini.

3) Fasa Mengembangkan (Scale)
Inilah fasa untuk mengembangkan bisnes. Anda mungkin mengambil masa yang lama untuk berada di fasa ini kerana semasa ini anda akan mengembangkan bisnes anda menjadi sebuah empayar. Tugasan yang anda pikul seorang diri atau bersama-sama beberapa kerat ahli di dalam team bisnes anda boleh diserahkan kepada staf-staf sokongan yang boleh diberi kepercayaan untuk melaksanakannya bagi pihak anda.
Fasa ini adalah tasa yang sesuai untuk mencari investor bagi mempecepatkan proses pengembangan bisnes anda. Bukan semasa anda berada pada fasa startup!
Nampak indah kerana sekarang anda yang menjadi ‘boss’, namun fasa ini jarang dilalui oleh usahawan Bumiputera. Kerana kebanyakan usahawan akan melompat ke dalam bisnes lain sebelum memasuki fasa ini.

Sebagai contoh:
Seorang pengusaha nasi lemak, mula memikirkan pertambahan servis di gerai beliau seperti mempelbagaikan kuih-muih sebagai alternatif kepada pelanggan dan sekali gus untuk menarik minat pelanggan baru. Mungkin juga beliau akan membaiki servis perkhidmatan dengan menambah tempat kerusi dan meja bagi menampung pertambahan pelanggan. Beliau juga boleh membuka cawangan gerai yang baru.

Ketiga-tiga fasa bisnes ini adalah panduan untuk anda mengatur stategi pengurusan yang terbaik supaya anda tidak tersalah langkah yang akhirnya akan memberi impak negatif terhadap bisnes anda. Tempoh ideal untuk berada di ketiga-tiga fasa bisnes ini ialah selama 5 tahun tetapi ada usahawan yang berjaya menjadi jutawan semasa berada di fasa pertama lagi.

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