Entiti Perniagaan

Pemilikan Tunggal (Enterprise)

Seksyen 4, Akta Pendaftaran Perniagaan 1956 mentafrifkan perniagaan tunggal sebagai perniagaan yang ditubuhkan, dipunyai, dibiayai dari segi kewangan dan pegurusannya dikendalikan oleh seorang individu sahaja. Ia lazimnya melibatkan perniagaan secara kecil-kecilan. Jenis perniagaan ini selalunya dimiliki oleh orang perseorangan dimana segala urusan perniagaan bergantung kepadanya. Tanggung jawab pemilik tunggal adalah tidak terhad. Sekiranya perniagaan tersebut gagal dan diistiharkan bankrupt, sipiutang (Creditors) boleh menyaman pemilik bagi menuntut hutang. Mereka yg mendapat arahan mahkamah boleh menuntut diatas harta persendirian pemilik tunggal. Termasul rumah, kereta dan sebagainya. Walau bagaimanpun entiti perniagaan ini senang dan mudah ditubuhkan kerana kurangnya formaliti yang perlu dipatuhi.

Perkongsian (Partnerships

Sebuah perkongsian ditubuhkan dengan mendaftarkan penubuhannya dengan Suruhanjaya Syarikat Malaysia (SSM). Perkongsian wujud dengan berbagai cara, antaranya : Persetujuan menjalankan perniagaan di antara dua individuPersetujuan menjalankan perniagaan perkongsian di antara dua ahli perniagaan (peniaga milik tunggal) tidak kira bentuk asal sama ataupun tidak selepas bergabung, asalkan bersetuju menjalankan perniagaan bersama. Persetujuan antara dua pihak (individu dan peniaga) menjalankan perniagaan bersama bagi tujuan bantuan modalTiada klausa dalam Akta Perkongsian 1961 menyebut tentang bilangan maksimum pekongsi, hanya menyatakan bilangan minimum pekongsi iaitu 2 orang. Namun Seksen 14(3)(b) Akta Syarikat ada menyatakan bilangan maksimum pekongsi sesebuah perkongsian ialah 20 orang. Walau bagaimanapun bagi perniagaan berbentuk profesional seperti guaman, akauntan dan arkitek, keahliannya boleh meningkat sehingga 50 orang. Dari segi perundangan perkongsian tidak dianggap entiti berasingan dengan pekongsi (liabiliti tidak terhad). Ini bermakna segala urusan yang dibuat oleh seseorang pekongsi akan mengikat perkongsian keseluruhannya. Contoh : Jika pemiutang (Creditors) menuntut wang dari perkongsian, setiap perkongsi bertanggungjawab melunaskan tuntutan tersebut. Jika mana2 pekongsi gagal melunaskan tuntutan tersebut, pekongsi lain wajib membantu untuk melunaskannya. Dari segi perundangan, perkongsian tidak dianggap entiti berasingan dengan pekongsi. Rujukan Seksyen 7, 8, 11 dan 12 Akat Perkongsian 1961. Terikat dengan surat ikatan perjanjian di antara rakan kongsi. Surat perjanjian perkongsian menentukan kuasa & tanggungjawab rakan kongsi & syarat-syarat lain.Rakan2 kongsi dikhendaki menyumbang modal menikut nisabh modal yang persetujui dalam Artikel PerkongsianKeuntungan dan kerugian diagihkan kepada rakan kongsi mengikut syarat-syarat dan nisbah modal yang disumbangkan seperti dalam Artikel Perkongsian.

Syarikat Berhad (Sendirian, Sendirian Berhad Dan Berhad)

Ditubuhkan dibawah undang-undang Syarikat yang mempunyai hak dibawahnya untuk menjalankan aktiviti perniagaan, memiliki atau menjual harta, meminjam wang, mengambil dan diambil tindakan oleh mahkamah dan membuat perjanjian dengan senarang entiti. Syarikat Berhad adalah perniagaan yang ditubuhkan dibawah Akta Syarikat 1965 dan terbahagi kepada 3 bentuk : –Sendirian –Sendirian Berhad (Sdn. Bhd.) –Berhad (Bhd.) Syarikat Sendirian Berhad dan Berhad adalah terhad dengan saham.

SYARIKAT SENDIRIAN BERHAD (SDN. BHD.)

Dikawal dibawah Akta Syarikat 1965 dan merupakan entiti yang sah terpisah daripada pemilik.Dimiliki oleh 2 -50 orang pemegang saham. Pemilik Syarikat mempunyai liabiliti terhad. Pemilik/pemegang saham syarikat menyumbangkan modalSyarikat dianggota lembaga Pengarah sekurang-kurang 2 orang untuk mengetahuai dasar dan matlamat Syarikat. Pemegang saham yang memiliki 51% atau lebih daripada jumlah saham Syarikat berhak untuk mengawal Syarikat tersebut. Saham Syarikat boleh dijual beli tetapi tidak dilakukan di pasaran di pasaran terbuka.Penjualan mesti dengan persetujuan pemegang saham yang lain. Tidak disenaraikan di BSKL. Jangka hayat perniagaan adalah panjang. Boleh dikenali dengan mudah, ada perkataan Sendirian Berhad (Sdn. Bhd.) pada akhir nama Syarikat. Contoh : Rasa Sayang Sdn. Bhd. Syarikat ini ditubuhkan di bawah Akta Syarikat 1965 dan sekurang-kurangnya 2 orang diperlukan bagi menajanya, Ahli-ahli syarikat ini dihadkan kepada 50 orang sahaja dan satu-satu masa. Mengikut peraturan-peraturan yang ditetapkan oleh Akta Syarikat 1965 sesebuah syarikat sendirian berhad mempunyai sifat-sifat seperti seorang manusia iaitu, Mempunyai namanya sendiri, Boleh didakwa atau mendakwa atas namanya sendiri di Mahkamah, Mempunyai alamat yang tertentu, Mempunyai aset atas namanya sendiri, Tertubuhnya bersepanjang sehingga tindakan diambil bagi membubarkannya, (perpetual seccession) walaupun ada di antara ahli-ahlinya yang meninggal dunia.

Kelebihan: Liabiliti perniagaan adalah terhad kepada sumbangan modal sahaja. Kontuniti atau Syarikat terjamin – iaitu Syarikat tidak akan dibubar dengan kematian seseorang pemegang saham. Kemudahan untuk mendapat modal. Kemudahan dari segi penukaran hakmilik. Pemegang-pemegang saham dilindungi oleh perundangan. Potensi untuk perkembangan luas. Pemilik saham tidak dibebankan dengan tanggungjawab pengurusan.

Kekurangan: Rumit untuk diuruskan serta terikat dan tertakluk kepada Akta Syarikat. Cukai Pendapatan yang tinggi. Saham Syarikat tidak boleh dijualbeli melalui Pasaran Saham.

SYARIKAT AWAM BERHAD (BHD.)

Ciri-ciri Syarikat Awam Berhad adalah agak sama dengan ciri-ciri Syarikat Sendirian Berhad. Perbezaannya adalah dari segi pemilikan perniagaan. Tiada hadnya bagi mereka yang ingin bagi Syarikat jenis ini. Menurut peruntukkan undang-undang, dihujung setiap nama Syarikat Awam Berhad mesti ditulis nama “Berhad”. Pemegang saham bebas menjual dan membeli saham dipasaran saham tanpa memerlukan persetujuan dari sesiapa. Pekara-pekara lain seperti penubuhan, pendaftaraan syarikat, agihan keuntungan dan jangka hayat adalah sama seperti Syarikat Sendirian Berhad. Syarikat Awam Berhad juga adalah di bawah takluk Akta Syarikat 1965, dan mempunyai sifat-sifat yang sama. Sesebuah Syarikat Sendirian Berhad yang telah berjaya dan ingin menambahkan ahli-ahlinya iaitu lebih daripada 50 orang hendaklah mengubah bentuknya daripada syarikat sendirian berhad kepada syarikat (Awam) Berhad (Public Ltd. Company) Bilangan ahli Syarikat Berhad ini tidak terhad tetapi hendaklah sekurang-kurang tujuh orang. Penjualan Saham Syarikat Berhad boleh memepelawa orang ramai membeli sahamnya. Tetapi sebelum berbuat demikian, satu panduan rancangan (prospectus) hendaklah disiapkan dan diluluskan oleh Pendaftar Syarikat dan disiarkan diakhbar-akhbar tempatan untuk menerangkan kepada orang ramai kedudukan sebenar syarikat tersebut dan menyebutkan rancangan-rancangan yang hendak dibuat serta anggaran pendapatan dan tahunan syarikat ini mestilah disiarkan di dalam panduan rancangan tersebut dan Pengarah-Pengarah yang berkenaan adalah bertanggungjawab atas segala butir-butir yang terkandung di dalam panduan rancangan itu. Pengarah-Pengarah, Pegawai-pegawai Syarikat dan lain-lain pihak yang berkenaan boleh didenda di Mahkamah jika panduan rancangan ini mengandungi butir-butir yang palsu. Syarikat berhad yang kecil tidak perlu mengeluarkan Prospektus. Apa yang diperlukan ialah Statement in Lieu of Prospectus yang telah diluluskan oleh Pendaftar Syarikat. Saham Syarikat Berhad ini juga boleh dijual-beli melalui pasaran saham (stock exchange) dengan syarat keahlian syarikat ini tidak terhad kepada mana-mana satu bangsa atau kaum. Sebelum itu Syarikat tersebut hendaklah mendaftar dirinya dengan Pasaran Saham tersebut dengan bayaran-bayaran tertentu. Organisasi Syarikat Organisasi syarikat berhad adalah sama dengan syarikat Syarikat sendirian berhad iaitu ia mempunyai Lembaga Pengarah yang memegang teraju syarikat. Penubuhan Cara-cara menubuhkan syarikat dan bayaran penubuhan syarikat berhad adalah sama dengan syarikat sendirian berhad iaitu mengikut modal yang dibenarkan (authorised capital). Walaupun demikian, adalah diingatkan bahawa kehendak-kehendak Akta Syarikat 1965 ke atas syarikat berhad adalah lebih rumit lagi daripada yang dikenakan ke atas syarikat sendirian berhad. Salah satu daripadanya ialah syarikat berhad dikehendaki memajukan imbangan kira-kira tahunannya yang diaudit bersama-sama dengan laporan tahunan pada tiap-tiap tahun. Mereka yang ingin menubuhkan syarikat ini adalah dinasihatkan supaya menubuhkan sebuah syarikat sendirian berhad terlebih dahulu dan sesudah syarikat itu berjalan dengan baik dan perlu menambahkan modalnya Kelebihan Saham syarikat boleh dijual beli melalui Pasaran Saham. Syarikat boleh mempelawa orang ramai untuk membeli saham. Lebih mudah untuk mendapat pinjaman daripada Institusi-institusi Kewangan.

Kekurangan :  Bilangan ahli atau pemegang saham yang terlalu ramai. Sukar untuk mengekalkan suasana dan perhubungan yang rapat dan baik di antara pihak pengurusan dengan kakitangan dan juga di antara pemegang saham dan pengurusan. Lebih rumit untuk diuruskan dan kehendak-kehendak Akta Syarikat 1965 yang lebih ketat. Diperlukan memfail kepada Pendaftar Syarikat penyata kewangan yang beraudit bersama dengan laporan tahunan pada tiap-tiap tahun. Berbagai jenis cukai yang kena dibayar.

KOPERASI

Merupakan perniagaan yang dijalankan sekumpulan individu secara sukarela untuk menjaga kebajikkan ahli-ahlinya. Terdapat 2 bentuk koperasi iaitu : Koperasi keahlian terhad – Terhad kepada jenis pekerjaan, kawasan dan latarbelakang seperti Koperasi Guru. Koperasi keahlian bebas – Iannya terbuka kepada sesiapa saja untuk menjadi ahli seperti Koperasi Pengguna, Koperasi Perumahan Mengikut Akta Koperasi 1948, koperasi mempunyai prinsip-prinsip seperti keanggota sukarela dan terbuka, perjalanan pengurusan secara demokrasi, bayaran untung atas saham yang terhad, pembahagian untung secara saksama, menggalakkan pendidikan koperasi dan bekerjasama secara aktif, di semua peringkat. Koperasi ialah sebuah pertubuhan sosio-ekonomi yang didaftarkan di bawah Akta 502 (Akta Koperasi 1993) Malaysia. Pertubuhan ini dianggotai, dimodali dan ditadbir oleh sekumpulan manusia berasaskan semangat dan usaha kerjasama untuk memajukan kepentingan ekonomi dan sosial anggota-anggotanya. Dalam ertikata lain, koperasi merupakan persatuan yang menjalankan aktiviti perniagaan yang bertujuan membantu dan meringankan beban anggota-anggotanya . Selain mendapat pulangan dalam bentuk dividen , anggota-anggotanya juga menikmati harga yang lebih murah dari pasaran dan kemudahan-kemudahan khas seperti pinjaman dan sebagainya, bergantung kepada koperasi yang dianggotainya. Sesebuah koperasi ditadbirselia oleh sepasukan Anggota Lembaga yang dilantik secara demokrasi pada Mesyuarat Agung yang biasanya diadakan selepas tiap-tiap akhir tahun kewangan sesebuah koperasi itu. Seorang Pengerusi , Setiausaha dan Bendahari akan dilantik untuk mentadbir koperasi itu. Lantikan dibuat bedasarkan pada calon yang mendapat undi terbanyak. Setiap anggota berhak mencalonkan seseorang daripada kalangan anggota untuk jawatan Anggota Lembaga. Sesebuah koperasi ditubuhkan untuk memenuhi keperluan anggota-anggotanya manakala tujuan penubuhan sesebuah syarikat adalah untuk mencari keuntungan semata-mata. Hak milik sesebuah koperasi adalah kepada anggota-anggotanya manakala sesebuah syarikat dipunyai pemegang saham syarikat tersebut. Kawalan sesebuah koperasi dijalankan bedasarkan sistem demokrasi, berasaskan kepada satu anggota, satu undi . Kawalan sesebuah syarikat berhad pula dijalankan bedasarkan jumlah saham yang dipunyainya. Keuntungan sesebuah koperasi dikongsi dikalangan anggota-anggotanya manakala bagi sesebuah syarikat pula, keuntungan dibahagikan antara pemegang-pemegang saham. Nilai saham seseorang anggota koperasi adalah tetap dan boleh dikeluarkan semula. Saham sesebuah syarikat tidak boleh dikeluarkan semula dan nilainya tidak menentu. Pertubuhan koperasi tertakluk kepada Akta Koperasi manakala syarikat tertakluk kepada Akta Syarikat.

BADAN BERKANUN

Pada kebiasannya Badan Berkanun ditubuhkan oleh kerajaan yang bertujuan untuk membangunkan sesuatu industri atau menjaga kepentingan rakyat. Diwujudkan melalui Akta Parlimen @ Enakmen Negeri. Ditubuhkan secara perbadanan. Mempunyai tugas dan kaedah pengoperasianya mirip sektor swasta.Contoh : KWSP, UDA, Suruhanjaya Syarikat Malaysia(SSM), LHDN, Perbadanan Kemajuan Negeri dsb. Beberapa badan berkanun di Malaysia telah diswastakan melalui dasar penswastaan dan pensyarikatan pada tahun 1980an seperti TNB dan Syarikat Telekom Malaysia.Mengabungkan matlamat sosial dengan keuntungan.

SUMBER : http://caon9-syarikat.blogspot.my/2009/08/salam.html

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    This country could still be described in terms of development as long as its population grew from 9 million in 2013 up to 10,1 million in 2017; unemployment fell from 2,8% in 2013 to 1,7% last year[1]. Even though in 2014 many infrastructural projects were postponed, this year they will be continued, moreover there are new general plans for the following two decades. It was calculated that a recently adopted 5% of VAT will help to gain income in the amount of 12 billion euros during the first year of implementation[2].Rolands petersons privatbank
    All the Emirates, especially Dubai and Abu Dhabi are continuing their efforts to vary the economy and decrease the amount of activities related to oil products. In addition to the infrastructural projects, Abu Dhabi has made significant investments to the alternative energy sources creation, according to Rolands Petersons, a member of the board of Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o. who offers his thoughts on the UAE economy.Rolands petersons privatbank
    Despite having suffered crises, this country is still a demanded business partner among many world economies, it is being forecasted that before the World Expo in 2020 the UAE will become even an more demanded business partner worldwide.
    Juergen Thomas Steinmetz has continuously worked in the travel and tourism industry since he was a teenager in Germany (1979), beginning as a travel agent up through today as a publisher of eTurboNews (eTN), one of the world’s most influential and most-read travel and tourism publications.Rolands petersons privatbank He is also Chairman of ICTP. Rolands petersons privatbank His experiences include working and collaborating with various national tourism offices and non-governmental organizations, as well as private and non-profit organizations, and in planning, implementing, and quality control of a range of travel and tourism-related activities and programs, including tourism policies and legislation.Rolands petersons privatbank His major strengths include a vast knowledge of travel and tourism from the point of view of a successful private enterprise owner, superb networking skills, strong leadership, excellent communication skills, strong team player, attention to detail, dutiful respect for compliance in all regulated environments, and advisory skills in both political and non-political arenas with respect to tourism programs, policies, and legislation.Rolands petersons privatbank He has a thorough knowledge of current industry practices and trends and is a computer and Internet junkie.Rolands petersons privatbank

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    Transport and logistics industries are of particular importance for the Latvian economy since they have a steady GDP growth and provide services to virtually all other sectors of the national economy.Rolands petersons minicredit Every year it is emphasized that this sector should be recognized as a priority and extend its promotion, however, the representatives of the transport and logistics sector are looking forward to more concrete and long-term solutions.Rolands petersons minicredit

    9.1% of the value added to the GDP of Latvia

    Despite the political and economic changes of the last decade, the influence of the transport and logistics industry on the economy of our country remains high: in 2016 the sector increased the value added to the GDP by 9.1%. Moreover, the average monthly gross wage is still higher then in other sectors – in 2016 in other sectors of the economy it was 859 euros, whereas in storage and transportation sector the average gross wage is about 870 euros (1,562 euros – water transport, 2,061 euros – air transport, 1059 euros in the of storage and auxiliary transport activities, etc.).Rolands petersons minicredit

    Special economic area as an additional support

    The positive examples of the logistics industry are the ports that have developed a good structure.Rolands petersons minicredit Riga and Ventspils ports function as free ports, and the Liepaja port is included in the Liepaja Special Economic Zone (SEZ). Companies operating in free ports and SEZ can receive not only the 0 tax rate for customs, excise, and value-added tax but also a discount of up to 80% of the company’s income and up to 100% of the real estate tax.Rolands petersons minicredit The port is actively implementing various investment projects related to the construction and development of industrial and distribution parks.Rolands petersons minicredit The attraction of investments promotes the creation of higher added value, development of production, expansion of a spectrum of given services and creation of new workplaces. It is necessary to bring to the attention the small ports – SKULTE, Mersrags, SALACGRiVA, Pavilosta, Roja, Jurmala, and Engure, which currently occupy a stable position in the Latvian economy and have already become regional economic activity centers.

    Port of Liepaja, will be the next Rotterdam.

    There is also a wide range of opportunities for growth, and a number of actions that can be taken to meet projected targets.Rolands petersons minicredit There is a strong need for the services with high added value, the increase of the processed volumes of cargo by attracting new freight flows, high-quality passenger service and an introduction of modern technologies and information systems in the area of transit and logistics. Liepaja port has all the chances to become the second Rotterdam in the foreseeable future.Rolands petersons minicredit

    Latvia as a distribution center for cargos from Asia and the Far East.

    One of the most important issues for further growth of the port and special economic zone is the development of logistics and distribution centers, mainly focusing on the attraction of goods from Asia and the Far East.Rolands petersons minicredit Latvia can serve as a distribution center for cargos in the Baltic and Scandinavian countries for Asia and the Far East (f.e. China, Korea). The tax regime of the Liepaja Special Economic Zone in accordance with the Law “On Taxation in Free Ports and Special Economic Zones” on December 31, 2035. This allows traders to conclude an agreement on investment and tax concession until December 31, 2035, until they reach a contractual level of assistance from the investments made.Rolands petersons minicredit Considering the range of benefits provided by this status, it is necessary to consider the possible extension of the term.

    Infrastructure development and expansion of warehouse space

    Our advantage lies in the fact that there is not only a strategic geographical position but also a developed infrastructure that includes deep-water berths, cargo terminals, pipelines and territories free from the cargo terminal.Rolands petersons minicredit Apart from this, we can add a good structure of pre-industrial zone, distribution park, multi-purpose technical equipment, as well as the high level of security not only in terms of delivery but also in terms of the storage and handling of goods. In the future, it would be advisable to pay more attention to access roads (railways and highways), increase the volume of storage facilities, and increase the number of services provided by ports.Rolands petersons minicredit Participation in international industry exhibitions and conferences will make it possible to attract additional foreign investments and will contribute to the improvement of international image.

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